Organisation and Enterprise

UP Board Class 10 Commerce Chapter 23 Labour: That means, Traits and Effectivity

Labour: That means, Traits and Effectivity Goal Sort Questions (1 Mark)

Query 1.
Labour performs a vital function in:
(a) Economic system
(b) Manufacturing
(c) Manufacturing
(d) None of those
Reply:
(b) Manufacturing

Query 2.
Land is a passive issue of ……..
(a) Manufacturing
(b) Belongings
(c) Organisation
(d) None of those
Reply:
(a) Manufacturing

Query 3.
Bodily labourer requires the utmost use of muscular power and ……….
(a) Mentally Energy
(b) Intelligency
(c) Bodily Vitality
(d) None of those
Reply:
(c) Bodily Vitality

Query 4.
Psychological labour may be both skilled or ……..
(a) businessmen
(b) employment
(c) administrative
(d) None of those
Reply:
(c) administrative

Query 5.
Effectivity means: (UP 2015)
(a) Human Energy
(b) Psychological Capability
(c) Productive Capability
(d) None of those
Reply:
(d) None of those

Labour: That means, Traits and Effectivity Particular Reply Sort Questions (1 Mark)

Query 1.
Is manufacturing potential solely with the assistance of labour ? Give reply in Sure or No.
Reply:
Sure.

Query 2.
If the labourers can be educated and educated the standard of labour will enhance? Give reply in Sure or No.
Reply:
Sure.

Labour: That means, Traits and Effectivity Very Brief Reply Sort Questions (1 Mark)

Query 1.
What’s the effectivity of labour?
Reply:
Effectivity means productive capability: Effectivity of labour, subsequently, denotes the capability of the employee to supply comparatively great amount or higher sort of work or each in a given time frame. (UPBoardmaster.com) The effectivity of labour is that high quality of the employee by which in given situations in a specified time be produces extra or higher sort of products. Therefore, the effectivity of labour relies on the. amount and high quality of the product and the time is taken for its manufacturing.

Query 2.
Give any two traits of labour in India. (UP 2017)
Reply:
Two traits of labour are as follows:
(a) Labour is indispensable for manufacturing: A labourer sells his labour and never himself. In no case can we separate human effort from him.

(b) Labourers haven’t the identical energy of bargaining as these employers: Labourers are at a drawback in bargaining with their employers as a result of their labour can’t be saved up and must be bought of decrease charges.

Labour: That means, Traits and Effectivity Brief Reply Sort Questions (Four Marks)

Query 1.
Point out three components that improve the effectivity of labour.
Reply:
Three components that improve the effectivity of labour are as follows:
(a) Ethical Qualities: The effectivity of a employee relies upon upon his ethical construction. Trustworthy, honest, industrious and sober employees work extra effectively than those that lack these qualities.

(b) Food regimen, well being and lifestyle: The more healthy employee is extra environment friendly than a diseased, malnourished poor employee. Inadequate weight loss program, inadequate clothes, filthy residing quarters, decreased effectivity. A labourer whose normal upboardmaster.com) of residing is low is much less environment friendly than the one whose lifestyle is excessive.

(c) Training: Training is normal and technical. Normal schooling enlarges the conception of a person in regards to the matter and widens his data about normal issues. Technical schooling makes a person a specialist within the work. The person who has obtained normal and technical schooling is extra environment friendly that one who lacks them.

Query 2.
Write the 4 disadvantages of division of labour.
Reply:
4 disadvantages of division of labour are as follows:
(a) Disadvantages to Producers:

  • Disadvantages of enormous scale manufacturing: Huge producers cut back their prices as much as the restrict the place different opponents couldn’t keep available in the market.
  • Extra use of Machines: As a result of extra use of machines, merchandise will bp (UPBoardmaster.com) will increase which is able to lead to low costs.

(b) Disadvantages to Labourers:

  • Disadvantages of enormous scale manufacturing: Using machines reduces the significance of labour.
  • Disadvantages of use of machines: As a result of implementation of division of labour, the introduction of machines additionally will increase. Machines take the place of males which leads to unemployment.

Query 3.
Make out the primary variations between Land and Labour.
Reply:
Distinction between Land and Labour:

LandLabour
1. Land is a passive technique of manufacturing.1. Labour is an lively technique of manufacturing.
2. Land is fastened and restricted in provide. It can’t be elevated or decreased.2. Provide of labour relies upon upon the inhabitants. It will increase and reduces with the lower or improve in inhabitants.
3. The land just isn’t perishable which suggests it’s not wasted.3. Labour is perishable, it goes wasted.
4. Land lacks mobility, it can’t be shifted from one place to a different.4. Labour is cell, it strikes from locations of much less demand to these of extra demand.
5. Land may be separated from its proprietor.5. Labour is inseparable from the labourer.
6. Land is simply the means, not the tip.6. Labour is each the means and the tip.
7. Land is a free present of nature.7. Labour is a human effort.

Labour: That means, Traits and Effectivity Lengthy Reply Sort Questions (Eight Marks)

Query 1.
What is supposed by the time period “Labour”? What are its sorts? What do you perceive by expert, semi-skilled and unskilled labour? (UP 2009, 17)
Reply:
That means of Labour. In easy language, “labour” means human efforts. However in Economics, labour consists of these human efforts, psychological or bodily or each that are undertaken within the expectation of reward. Thus, labour contains the next two issues:

  • Labour may be bodily in addition to psychological. For instance, the labour of a employee is bodily and that of a college lecturer psychological.
  • Labour is that human effort which is undertaken for the sake (UPBoardmaster.com) of incomes a wealth of a residing. For instance, the place a person sings for his personal recreation, his effort doesn’t quantity to labour. However, if he sings in expectation of a reward in a theatre, his exertion is labour.

Sorts of Labour: There are 4 sorts of labour present in India:

  • Bodily and psychological labour.
  • Expert, semi-skilled and unskilled labour.
  • Productive and unproductive labour.
  • Skilled and administrative labour.

Expert Labour: Expert labour is carried out by these employees who’ve obtained normal schooling {and professional} coaching for a specific commerce in order that they will resolve difficult drawback linked with their job.

Semi-skilled Labour: Semi-skilled labour is carried out by these employees (UPBoardSolutions.com) who’ve obtained no formal coaching within the commerce or job carried out by them however they’ve acquired sufficient talent to resolve numerous issues of commerce by themselves.

Unskilled Labour: Unskilled labour is the labour which is carried out by the employee who has obtained no coaching in any specific commerce or line.

Query 2.
What is supposed by effectivity of Labour? What components have an effect on the effectivity of labour?
Reply:
By ‘effectivity of labour’, we imply the productive capability of a employee to do extra work or higher work or each throughout a specified time frame. We all know that every one employees should not equally environment friendly. It’s normally noticed that the labourers working in the identical occupation with comparable varieties of instruments and varieties of gear with the identical sort of uncooked supplies, with the same sort of working situations and for a similar time frame produce not solely completely different portions of output but in addition completely different qualities of output.

Components Affecting Effectivity of Labour: Effectivity of labour relies upon upon numerous components. Chief of them are as follows:
1. Racial Characters: Individuals of some races are superior to others in bodily power (UPBoardmaster.com) and are able to extended bodily exertion. Take for instance the case of these residing in Punjab or Haryana who’re taller, stronger and hard-working than the remainder of the folks of the nation.

2. Hereditary Characters: Hereditary traits of father and mom additionally affect the effectivity of the employees. For instance, the youngsters of educated dad and mom are additionally normally educated and environment friendly.

3. Ethical Qualities: An sincere and honest employee is considered an environment friendly employee. Ethical portions embody the way in which a baby is introduced up, his household background, instructional, non secular and social upbringing and so on.

4. Meals, Well being and Customary of Residing: The effectivity of labour to an awesome extent is set by the kind of meals eaten and the sort of physique maintained by a labourer. A big a part of the labour drive will go waste if an inexpensive lifestyle for the working class just isn’t offered.

5. Normal Training: Normal schooling permits an individual to develop his mind and widen his data. This data makes a employee clever and enlarges his energy to differentiate what is true and what’s improper?

6. Technical Training: Technical schooling trains the employee in a specific (UPBoardmaster.com) commerce or occupation and develops in him sure particular qualities and makes him a specialist.

7. Local weather: Excessive weather conditions don’t favour exhausting labour. For instance, excessive rugged mountains and scorching deserts impose super handicaps upon the density of inhabitants, financial actions, transportation services and so on. which straight affect the effectivity of labour.

8. Social Circumstances: Some persons are compelled to proceed within the enterprise or commerce carried out by their ancestors. Below such situations, the employees should not ready to pick their occupation based on their qualification and style. When that is the case, they can not carry out based on their effectivity.

Query 3.
What’s Labour? Briefly describe the primary options of labour as an element of manufacturing. (UP 2014)
Reply:
That means of Labour. In easy language, “labour” means human efforts. However in Economics, labour consists of these human efforts, psychological or bodily or each that are undertaken within the expectation of reward. Thus, labour contains the next two issues:

  • Labour may be bodily in addition to psychological. For instance, the labour of a employee is bodily and that of a college lecturer psychological.
  • Labour is that human effort which is undertaken for the sake of incomes a wealth of a residing. For instance, the place a person sings for his personal recreation, his effort doesn’t quantity to labour. However, if he sings in expectation of a reward in a theatre, his exertion is labour.

Major options of Labour as a Issue of Manufacturing
The principle Options of labour as an element of manufacturing are as follows:
1. Position in manufacturing: Labour performs a vital function in manufacturing (UPBoardmaster.com) Land can’t produce by itself besides when labored by males.

2. Lively Issue: Land of its personal can’t produce something until labour is utilized to it. Capital is the produced technique of manufacturing. Thus, labour alone is the primary issue of manufacturing and the one lively issue.

3. Developed and Undeveloped International locations: The Significance of labour in developed and developed international locations is identical. Its significance in undeveloped international locations continues to be larger as a result of the way forward for these international locations relies on the batter utilization of their man-powers sources.

4. Proof of literacy and technical coaching: The availability of labour in a rustic relies upon not on the variety of employees accessible but in addition on the standard of employees as judged from the extent of literacy and the extent of technical coaching attained by the folks of the nation.

Query 4.
Enumerate the traits of labour. What are the completely different sorts of labour? (UP 2019)
Reply:
Traits of labour: The next are the primary traits of labour
1. Labour is indispensable for manufacturing: Manufacturing just isn’t potential with out the assistance of labour. Even the richest pure sources can’t produce something with out the lively help of human exertion. Labour is an lively issue of manufacturing. Pure sources of a rustic can’t produce something with out labour exerted on them.

2. Labour is inseparable from the labourer: A labourer sells his labour and never himself. In no case can we separate human effort from him.

3. Labour is perishable: Labour unsold on a specific day goes waste. If a labourer stays unemployed even for a day resulting from slackness of demand, strike or lockout, his labour for that day is misplaced to the nation. On this sense (UPBoardmaster.com) labour is perishable. As a consequence of this peculiarity, the bargaining energy of labour could be very weak and that is the explanation ununited labourers are exploited by employers to just accept the wages they’re keen to pay. This weak spot of labour is eliminated to some extent by unions.

4. Provide of labour modifications slowly: The availability of labour for a brief interval can neither be contracted nor expanded to fulfill the reducing or rising demand for it. For instance, if the demand for engineers goes up, it’s going to take some 5 years to supply a ample variety of educated engineers to fulfill the rising demand. Equally, we can’t contract the provision of engineers if their demand falls down.

5. Provide of labour doesn’t behave like different commodities: Ordinarily, the provision of a commodity rises, when its worth rise however the provide of labour doesn’t all the time rise when wages rise. For instance, when wages rise past the usual of residing of employees, they may prefer to take pleasure in extra leisure and the provision of labour can be contracted even when the value of labour (i.e., wages) rises. So, provide of labour doesn’t behave like the provision of different commodities.

6. Labour is cell however much less cell than a capital: Labour strikes from locations of much less demand to these of extra demand. For instance, thousand of labourers transfer from villages to metropolitan cities the place their demand is greater than it’s of their native villages. However labour just isn’t so cell as capital.

A beneficial funding situation in a rustic attracts capital even from international international locations however higher employment alternatives fail to draw an excellent variety of environment friendly employees from overseas resulting from numerous difficulties of language, residing, habits and social variations.

7. Labour can take up capital: If extra capital is invested in human beings and they’re educated properly, then labour high quality will enhance decidedly to a substantial extent. To coach an excellent variety of folks we require giant capital (UPBoardSolutions.com) within the form of coaching establishments, laboratories, laboratory gear, buildings and so on. The effectivity of the labour drive so raised will depend on the kind of coaching obtained. Thus, labour absorbs capital.

8. Labour produces surplus worth: Typically, a labourer produces greater than is required for his self-consumption. The full worth of his product is rather more than the wages paid to him. Therefore labour produces surplus worth. This surplus is stored by the employer.

9. Labour is means and ends each: Labour is supposed as a result of it’s used as a method for producing wealth. It’s an finish in itself as a result of manufacturing is carried on to fulfill human desires, i.e., the desires of human labourers.

10. Labourers haven’t the identical energy of bargaining as their employers: Labourers are at a drawback in bargaining with their employers as a result of their labour can’t be saved up and has.to be bought at decrease charges.

11. It’s not straightforward to calculate the price of labour: It’s troublesome to calculate the price of mentioning youngsters and the price of coaching once they develop up.

12. Labourers differ inefficiency: The effectivity of all labourers just isn’t the identical. Therefore, wages differ from man to man.

Sorts of Labour
Labour may be categorised based on the character of labor and the skilled, technical coaching required. The next are crucial varieties of labour:

1. Bodily and psychological labour: Bodily labourer requires the utmost use of muscular power and bodily power. The labour of the farmer, the bus driver, the mason is bodily, whereas the labour of the trainer, the engineer, the (UPBoardmaster.com) physician and the barrister is psychological. However the bodily and psychological labour typically can’t be separated from one another. There isn’t a work which may be known as purely psychological or purely bodily. The classification is predicated on the diploma of the side used.

Bodily labour is universally handled as inferior to the psychological labour and is paid decrease wages. Psychological labour is taken into account to be of upper standing and is accordingly paid greater wages. Psychological labour is finished by these engaged in white-collar jobs.

2. Expert, semi-skilled and unskilled labour: The second criterion for deciding the sort of labour is the diploma of talent obtained by the labourer. The labour carried out by one who has obtained no coaching in any specific commerce or line is named unskilled. He alters his occupation based on the wants of the state of affairs. The second class is that of the employees who’ve obtained no formal coaching within the commerce or job carried out by them however who’ve acquired sufficient talent to resolve numerous issues of the commerce themselves. Their labour is named semi-skilled. Lastly, there are employees who’ve obtained normal schooling {and professional} coaching for a specific commerce in order that they will resolve difficult issues linked with their occupation. Their labour is named expert.

Expert and semi-skilled are phrases which change based on time and place. The labour carried out by an knowledgeable physician, an excellent engineer or an awesome technologist is expert however the labour of an overseer or a nurse is semi-skilled.

3. Productive or unproductive labour: As long as labour is paid for, it’s productive. The labour which leads to the creation of some utility is named productive; the labour which fails to take action is named unproductive. For instance, the labour dedicated to the writing of a e-book is productive if the e-book is printed, and the author receives a royalty for it; but when the e-book just isn’t printed, the (UPBoardSolutions.com) labour concerned in writing is wasted. It’s unproductive. Marshall says that every one labour besides that which fails to advertise the specified intention in the direction of which it’s directed and which subsequently doesn’t produce any utilities is productive.

The older economists regarded solely that labour productive which created matter. So, they regarded labour concerned in agriculture and business as productive and all different labour as unproductive. This was the view of Adam Smith. The current economists don’t maintain this view.

4. Skilled and administrative labour: Psychological labour may be both skilled or administrative. The medical doctors, architects, professors,, attorneys and so on. who’re engaged in psychological work carry out skilled labour, whereas those that run (UPBoardmaster.com) and handle institutions and authorities departments are stated to be performing administrative labour. Each these varieties are extremely paid lessons.

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