UP board syllabus FIGURES OF SPEECH

Q. Write down the definition af Figures of Speech. .

Ans. Definition: “A Figure of speech is a deviation from the ordinary use of words with a view to increase their effect.”

इण्टर के पाठ्यक्रम में निम्नलिखित सात अलंकार निर्धारित है-

  1. Simile
  2. Metaphor
  3. Personification
  4. Apostrophe
  5. Oxymoron
  6. Hyperbole
  7. Onomatapoela

1 Simile Definition: Siml le Is a Figure of Speech in which there is a comparison be. tween two different objects which having at least one point in common. It is introduced by such words as like, as, so etc.

उपमा वह अलंकार है जिसमें दो भिन्न वस्तुओं की तुलना की जाती है जिनमें कम से कम एक गुण समान होता है


  1. Rana Pratap was as brave as a lion,
  2. I wandered lonely as a cloud
  3. Her words are sweet like honey.
  4. Words are like leaves.
  5. Their soul was like a star and dwelt apart.
  6. Life is like a dream
  7. So like a shattered column lay the king.
  8. Your face is as a book where man may read strange matters.
  9. She sways like a flower in the wind of our song,
  10. It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven.
  11. As shines the moon in clouded skies, she in her poor attire was seen.
  12. She skins like a bird on the foam of a steam.
  13. She hangs like a star in the dew of our song.
  14. We are all like simmers on the sea of life,
  15. O, my love’s like a red, red rose.
  16. As flies to the wanton boys weare to the gods.
  17. She is lovely like a rose.
  18. Errors, like straws, upon the surface flow.
  19. Metaphore

2 Definition YA Metaphor is an implied simile. In a Metaphor two things of the different kinds are compared but words of comparison-Like, so or As, are not used at all

रूपक एक प्रकार से अस्पष्ट उपमा ही है। इसके द्वारा यह प्रगट नहीं होता है कि एक वस्तु दूसरे के समान है, किन्तु यह मान लिया जाता है कि दोनों वस्तुएँ एक ही हैं।


  1. Life is a dream.
  2. Life is not a bed of roses.
  3. Cainel is the ship of desert.
  4. Friendship is a shettering tree.
  5. Variety is the spice of life.
  6. He is a man of iron will.
  7. I see a lily on the brow.
  8. He is the star of the family,
  9. Sardar Patel was a man of Iron will.
  10. Life is but a walking shadow.
  11. Revenge is a kind of wild Justice.
  12. Love is the spice of life.
  13. He is the pillar of the state.
  14. Life is a tale told by an idot.
  15. Personification

3 Definition: In Personification lifeless objects or abstract ideas are spoken of as having life and intelligence.

मानवीकरण में निर्जीव वस्तु अथवा भावनात्मक विचारों का इस प्रकार वर्णन किया जाता है. जैसे उनमें जीवन है। मानवीकरण में निर्जीव वस्तु को सजीव मान लिया जाता है।


  1. Love is blind
  2. Let not ambition mock their useful toil.
  3. Anxiety is sitting on her face.
  4. Death lays his icy hands on kings.
  5. Jealousy is green eyed monster.
  6. Opportunity knocks at the door but once.
  7. Authority forgets a dying king.
  8. The moon veiled her face.
  9. A lie has no legs.
  10. Swifter flies the feathered sheep.
  11. Pride goeth forth on horseback, grand and gray,
    But cometh back on foot, and begs its way.
  12. Apostrophe

4 Definition: An Apostrophe is a direct address to the dead, to the absent, or to a personified object or idea.

सम्बोधन में मृतक, अनुपस्थित, मानवीय गुण वाली वस्तु अथवा विचार के प्रति सीधा सम्बोधन ।


  1. O Solitude / where are thy charms
  2. Oworld ! O Life! O Time!
  3. Milton I thou should’st be living at this hour.
  4. Sardar Patel ! thou should’st be living at this hour.
  5. O Friend ! I know not which way I must look for comfort.
  6. O Death! where is thy sting?
  7. O Julius Caesar I thou art mighty yet.
  8. Frailty, thy name is woman!
  9. O Liberty ! what crimes have been committed in thy name.
  10. Rome! thou hast seen must better days.
  11. Omighty Caesar! Dast thou lie so low?
  12. Rollon, thou deep and dark blue, Ocean-roll!
  13. Oxymoron

5 Definition: Oxymoron is the combination of two words of opposite meaning in one expression.

विरोधाभास अलंकार में दो विरोधी अर्थ वाले शब्दों को एक ही कथन में कहा जाता है।


  1. James I was the wisest fool of his time.
  2. The naughty boy is cunningly simple.
  3. She was feeling sweet pain of love.
  4. Life is bitter sweet.
  5. It is an open secret.
  6. Excellent dumb discourse.
  7. O heavy lightness ! serious vanity.
  8. He appeared to be idle busy.
  9. There was wild grace in his behaviour.
  10. She accepted the kind cruelty of the surgeon’s knife.
  11. Lord of himself though not of lands, And having nothing he hath all
  12. Great lord of all things yet a prey to all.
  13. And having nothing she hath all
  14. He is idly busy now-a-days.
  15. Onomatopoeia

6 Definition: In Onomatopoeia the sound of the words suggests the sense or meaning,

ध्वनिसूचक अलंकार में शब्दों की ध्वनि द्वारा, अर्थ अथवा भावना प्रकट की जाती है।


  1. And murmuring of innumerably bees.
  2. Thundering of guns.
  3. Cooing of doves.
  4. Can you hear the buzzing of bees?
  5. Grunt, Grunt goes the hog.
  6. I heard the water lapping on the crag.
  7. I chatter, chatter as I flow to join the brimming river.
  8. I hear lake water lapping with dow sounds by the shore.
  9. And beauty born of murmuring sound, shall pass into her face.
  10. I babble on the pebbles.
  11. Bees hum.
  12. The cats mew.
  13. Beaded bubbles wrinking at the brin.
  14. The murmurous haunt offlies on summer eves. ‘
  15. Our sweetest songs are those that tell of saddest thoughts.
  16. Hyperbole

7 Definition: In Hyperbole a statement is made emphatic by overstatement. or Hyperbole is a Figure of speech in which things are shown as greater or smaller, better or worse than they really are.

अतिशयोक्ति वह अलंकार है जिसमें वस्तुओं को वास्तविकता से अधिक बड़ी या छोटी, अच्छी या खराब दिखाया जाता है। इस अलंकार में किसी बात को बढ़ा-चढ़ाकर या घटाकर प्रभावशाली बनाया


  1. Ten thousands sawl at a glance.
  2. Rivers of blood flowed in the battle.
  3. She wept oceans of tears.
  4. All the perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this little hand,
  5. I beg a thousand pardons.
  6. They were swifter than eagles and stronger than lions.
  7. The sky-neighbouring Himalayas.
  8. I have not seen him for ages
  9. O Hamlet! thou has cleft my heart in twain.
  10. The waves rolled mountain high.
  11. Belinda smiled and all the world was gay.
  12. They build the nation’s pillars deep and lift them to sky,
  13. There is dagger in the words.
  14. Why, man, if the river were dry,
    I am able to fill it with tears.
  15. The ship has weathered every rack.

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